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Term Paper 6. The Organic Soup Theory : The great contribution of Oparin and Haldane to the subject of the origin of life was based on the idea that in the period before life arose the atmosphere of Earth contained hydrogen H 2methane CH 4ammonia NH 3and water H 2 Obut no free oxygen O 2. Thus, Oparin and Haldane proposed that the pre-life atmosphere of Earth was highly reducing in a chemical sense.
From a variety of evidence, geologists, cosmologists, and chemists now generally agree that primitive atmosphere was chemically reducing in nature. As an example of these lines of evidence, early Precambrian rocks contain ferrous iron, which is unstable in the presence of O 2. Therefore, the early Precambrian rocks must have been laid down in the absence of atmospheric O 2. Oparin and Haldane both reasoned that a reducing atmosphere consisting of H 2CH 4NH 3and H 2 O would be favorable for the spontaneous formation of simple organic molecules and these might then polymerise spontaneously into macromolecules.
These macromolecules might then accumulate in the oceans and lakes of the time, giving rise to organic soups. It is doubtful that the accumulation would have been great because many kinds of organic molecules are unstable in aqueous solutions and are slowly and spontaneously hydrolysed. However, one may suppose that organic molecules may have become concentrated by adsorption term paper in biology solid surfaces a common phenomenon or through the rapid evaporation of lakes.
Fifteen years later, inthe Oparin-Haldane proposal about the spontaneous formation of organic molecules was tested directly. With the apparatus shown in Figure 1. Water was first added to the flask. The air was pumped out with a vacuum pump and the apparatus was then filled with a mixture of hydrogen, methane, and ammonia.
The electric discharges, which were common in the primitive atmosphere as lightning provided, energy for the synthesis of molecules from the four starting components. The water in the flask was boiled to cause circulation through the apparatus and remove any reaction products from the spark zone.
Reaction products collected in the condensing water in the condenser and accumulated in the water phase. The experiment was run for one week, and the water then analysed for any organic compounds that might have formed. A complicated mixture of small amounts of hundreds or even thousands of compounds is theoretically possible and might have reasonably been expected.
Instead a small number of compounds accounted for most of the image analysis essay products. Second, the molecules produced included several of major biological importance, particularly the amino acids glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid.
Fifteen percent of the carbon added as CH 4 to the apparatus was recovered in the compounds identified in Table 1. Additional carbon was converted into unidentified, tarlike, high-molecular-weight, organic polymers. This experiment has been repeated with various modifications many times in other laboratories. In recent years radio-astronomy has provided evidence by microwave spectroscopy that abiological synthesis of large quantities of biologically important molecules occurs commonly in the universe outside the Earth.
This list is striking because it includes the very compounds that are the most important for the abiological synthesis of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, and sugars. For example, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and biology term paper acid HCN react to form glutamic acid. Cyanoacetylene is a precursor of pyrimidines, and in particular can form a large amount of cytosine. Ribose, glucose, and other sugars are formed spontaneously in an alkaline solution of formaldehyde.
Hydrocyanic acid is a precursor of glycine and purines. A group of meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites also contain organic molecules. The Murchison meteorite, which fell near Murchison, Australia incontains two percent carbon, much of which is present as a complex mixture of organic molecules.
Among these are glycine, alanine, valine, proline, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid. Similar findings have been made term paper in biology the Murray meteorite, which fell in the U.
Pyrimidines and possibly purines are also present in the Murchison meteorite. The carbonaceous chondrites condensed from the same gaseous mass the solar nebula from which the sun and planets condensed. It is likely, therefore, that the organic molecules found in the meteorites were formed in the gaseous nebula. Of course, the presence of organic molecules in the solar nebula raises the possibility that organic molecules are present in other gaseous masses throughout the universe.
Term Paper 7. Pre-Biological Formation of Macromolecules : With pre-biological synthesis of such monomers as amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, nucleotides, and sugars the origin of life no longer seems so inscrutable. However, to go from monomers to a cell, no matter how simple and primitive is still a big leap.
We now know, however, that under the appropriate conditions, a solution of amino acids can polymerise into large polypeptides, and nucleotides can polymerise into nucleic acid molecules. Thus, it is generally supposed that accumulation of monomers was followed by the pre-biological formation of macromolecules and that the first cell arose by an aggregation of macromolecules. What is required for abiological formation of macromolecules?
Remember that the polymerisation of amino acids into polypeptides and of nucleotides into polynucleotides occurs by dehydration-condensation of the monomers.
To form a peptide bond between two amino acids condensation a molecule of water must be removed dehydration.
These polymerisations do not occur readily in aqueous solutions because the presence of many water molecules opposes dehydration, driving the reaction toward depolymerisation hydration of the monomers rather than polymerisation. The problem has been solved in the cell by coupling the hydrolysis bond breakage by addition of water of ATP to the dehydration- condensation of amino acids or nucleotides into polymers.
The dehydration is accomplished by forming an aminoacyl-tRNA at the expense of ATP in the case of peptide bond formation, and by splitting PP i from nucleoside triphosphate in the case of nucleic acid synthesis.
It is highly unlikely that ATP was present in a sufficient amount in the pre-biological environment to drive polymerisation reactions. Essays written to the highest standards. Our biology essays and research papers always meet the highest academic writing standards. This means that the biology term paper you receive from us will always follow your chosen format, such as MLA, Chicago, or APA, and it will always use appropriate citations to document term paper in biology work as needed.
To that end, we can make that promise because we double check every paper with specialized software to flag any potentially problematic passages before you receive your paper so we can target and eliminate any problem spots. Papers written on any topic at any level. From a college research proposal to a university reaction paper to a doctoral dissertation, we can produce an interesting and informative paper that is customized for your specific academic level. Supportive customer service around the clock.Contrary to this, following D.
There are five sequential phases in the successional development of vegetation e. The successional development of vegetation is of two types e. The vegetation community developed at the end of succession is called climax vegetation, climax community or climatic climax due to dominant control of climate on the evolution and development of vegetation. Term Paper 6. Need for Ecological Balance: Plants are basic for all.
Some small animals feeding on plants are eaten by larger animals. Plants or animals which serve as food for others become a part of the food chain. Destruction of theses plants or animals may affect the lives of others in the food chain. We can locate several food chains around us.
Existence of different plants and animals in sufficient number to support the food chain is an indication of a good ecological balance. Let us now look at the reasons for the break in food chains.
Mosquitoes lay eggs in still water. Frogs are eaten definition argument essay topics snakes. Snakes are eaten by mongoose and eagles. Then, just above the point where cell division ceases, the cells gradually elongate, growing to 10 or more times their previous length, often within the span of a few hours. This process of elongation without term paper in biology division is the principal cause of root growth, although, of course, growth is ultimately dependent on the production of the new cells that become part of the zone of elongation.
As the cells stop dividing, some begin to differentiate, forming first the sieve-tube elements, the conducting cells of the phloem, and then vessel elements, the conducting cells of xylem. At the level of xylem differentiation, the endodermis takes shape, and to the inside of the endodermis, the pericycle forms.
This tissue gives rise to branch roots. At about this same stage, the epidermal cells differentiate and begin to extend root hairs into the crevices between the soil grains. This same basic pattern of growth is seen in the first root of a seedling and is repeated over and over again in the growing root tips of a tree 50 meters tall.
The organisation of the developing shoot tip is somewhat similar to that seen in the root-first, a zone in which most of the cell division takes place; next, a zone of cell elongation; and finally, a zone of differentiation.
These term paper in biology are not as distinct in the shoot as they are in the root, however, because of the regular occurrence of nodes and their appendages. Also, no covering analogous to the root cap is produced over the shoot tip.
As in the root, the outermost layer of cells develops into the epidermis. In the shoot, these cells have an outer covering, the cuticle. Other cells differentiate to form ground tissue, which in dicots includes the cortex and the pith, and the primary vascular tissues-the primary xylem and the primary phloem.
The pattern of development is more complicated, however, than in the root tip since the apical meristem of the shoot is the source of tissues that give rise to new leaves, branches, and flowers. At the time of flowering the apical meristem form the floral parts and ceases to exist.
Here you can see the apical meristem, which is very small, and the beginnings-primordia-of leaves. Leaves are formed in an orderly sequence at the shoot tip. The leaf originates by the division of cells in a localised area along the side of the shoot apex.
The vascular tissue differentiates upward, becoming part of the general vascular system that connects the plant from root to leaf tip. In some species, leaves arise simultaneously in pairs opposite one another, as in our figure. In other species, the leaves occur spirally or in circles whorls at the nodes.
As the internodes elongate, the young leaves become separated so that biology term paper leaves clustered so tightly together around the apex will eventually be spaced out along the stem of the plant. As the growing tip of the shoot elongates, small masses of meristematic tissue are left just above the point at which the leaf joins the stem the leaf axil. These new meristematic regions, the buds, remain dormant dissertation globalisation after the growth of the adjacent leaf and internode is complete.
In many species, the buds do not develop at all unless the apical meristem of the shoot is damaged or removed. In some species, some buds are destined to become lateral branches, or a specialised shoot, such as a rhizome or a tuber or a flower.
In other species, whether or not a particular bud will become a flower or a branch is determined by environmental conditions, particularly day length. Secondary growth is the process by which woody plants increase the thickness of trunks, stems, branches, and roots after primary growth has ceased.
The cambiums are called lateral meristems. The vascular cambium is a thin, cylindrical sheath of tissue in between the xylem and the phloem. In plants with secondary growth, the cambium cells divide continually during the growing season, adding new xylem cells-that is, secondary xylem-on the outside of the primary xylem, and secondary phloem on the inside of the primary phloem. Some daughter cells remain as a cylinder of undifferentiated cambium. As the tree grows older, the living parenchyma cells of the xylem in the center of the trunk die, and those vessels cease to function.
This nonfunctional wood is called heartwood, as distinct from sapwood, which consists of living parenchyma cells and functional vessels. As the girth of stems and roots increases by secondary growth, the epidermis becomes stretched and torn.
In, response to this tearing process, a new type of cambium, the cork cambium, and forms from the cortex. Cork phellemwhich is a dead tissue at maturity, is produced from the cork cambium.
The cork cambium forms anew each year, moving further inward until; finally, there term paper in biology no cortex left. The tissues outside the vascular cambium, including the phloem, constitute the bark. In the center of the stem is the pith, composed of loosely packed parenchyma cells.
The first cylinders of tissues around the pith are layers of xylem, composed of vessels and other cell types. Around the outermost layer of xylem is a layer of meristematic tissue, the vascular cambium. Each year, during the growing season, the cambium undergoes a number of mitotic divisions, forming new xylem secondary xylem on its inner surface and new phloem secondary phloem on its outer surface.
By this continuous formation of layers of xylem and to a small extent phloem, tree trunks increase their diameter as primary growth increases their height. Season after season the new xylem forms visible growth layers, or rings. Each growing season leaves its trace, so that the age of a tree can be estimated by counting the number of growth rings in a section near its base.
Since the rate of growth of a tree depends on climatic conditions, it is possible to determine from the width of the annual growth layers of ancient trees fluctuations in temperature and rainfall that occurred hundreds of years ago. As the climate became colder, water became locked in snow and ice for part of the year. As a consequence, the angiosperms, which already possessed some adaptations to drought perhaps because of highland originswere placed under new environmental stress.
Some did not survive, and some were pushed toward the Equator. Those that did survive in colder, drier areas did so because of finance assignment help for existing characteristics that offered advantages in these relatively unfavourable environments. Chief among such characteristics is the capacity to remain dormant during periods when water is in short supply and when climatic conditions are unfavourable for delicate growing buds, shoots, new leaves, and root tips.
They should then do a brainstorming exercise which should lead to an initial outline of the paper. This involves generating the possible ideas and topics, reviewing them and choosing the best options. They should then prepare a preliminary outline, which is the first rough draft of the paper. The next stage is the research stage In this stage they should access the databases that they have access to and gather sources of information.
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Choose your topic. Try to make it as creative as possible; if you're given the opportunity to choose your own, take advantage of this.
Choose something you're particularly interested in because this will make it easier to write; in particular, try to select the topic as a result of pressing questions you already know you want to search for answers to.
Once you've decided on a topic, be sure to hone down it to a do-able topic; often a topic is initially too broad in its coverage, which will make it impossible to complete within the time and space constraints given. Narrow down your topic to something that can really be worked within the boundaries of the paper. If the topic is already chosen for you, start exploring unique angles that can set your content and information apart from the more obvious approaches many others will probably take.
Take great care not to choose a topic and be so set on how you see the outcome of your paper that you're closed to new ideas and avenues of thinking as you work through the paper. This is known in academia as "premature cognitive commitment". Instead, ask continuous questions about the topic at each stage of your research and writing and see the topic in terms of term paper in biology " hypothesis " rather than as a conclusion.
In this way, you'll be prepared to be challenged and to term paper in biology have your opinion changed as you work through the paper. Reading other people's comments, opinions and entries on a topic can often help you to refine your own, especially where they comment that "further research" is required or where they posit challenging questions but leave them unanswered.
For some more help, see How to establish a research topic. Do your research. It's pointless to launch into writing before you've done the research. Is this mutation present also in humans and plants? Homosexuality among animals- Everyone will be surprised to know this, but actually bisexuality and homosexuality are very common among all species of animals.
The Siberian Tiger- One of the most fascinating and mysterious animals on Earth. Natural treatments- Is it really possible to cure different diseases with plants? In the conclusion of your biology term paper, state the problem you posed and explain the results you found from your research. You need to give a summary of the observations and interpretations. You should also explain the strengths and limitations of your research. Besides this, you can make suggestion for future work as well if you have any.