We monitor all sources of research content in business and management dissertation, including journalsbooksopen access archivesand personal pages maintained by academics. We also host the largest open access archive in philosophy.
Our index currently contains 2, entries categorized in 5, categories. PhilPapers has overregistered users. Metaphysics and EpistemologyEpistemology 38, Metaphilosophy 6, Metaphysics 43, Philosophy of Action 25, Philosophy of Language 48, Philosophy of Mind 95, Philosophy of Religion 93, Descartes' Third Meditation : A 5 page comprehensive analysis of Descartes' third meditation in which the philosopher affirms that he is a thinking being who doubts and affirms, denies and knows.
From this foundation, Descartes presents and evaluates arguments concerning God's existence. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
Anselm who has been known as one of the forebearers of early theological hypothesis. The bibliography lists four sources. Does God Exist?
Excellent for studies in religion, philosophy etc; Please send e-mail for more details. Bibliographic references are available. Philosophy of Determinism Analyzed : This 5 page research paper examines the school of philosophy known as determinism. Specifically discussed are the teachings of Baruch Spinoza, B. Skinner and Walter T. Stace to ascertain if determinism is true and if a belief in determinism implies that man does not have to be held morally responsible for his actions.
Freewill vs. Determinism : This 5 page paper discusses whether or not the philosophical concepts of determinism and free will are compatible with each other.
Socrates was a philosopher with no equal even to this day. He remains one of the most important and one of the most enigmatic figures in Western philosophy.
However, Socrates was not the most popular figure of his time. In fact, many people despised him and desired the end of his existence Strong Essays words 2. Now hate is a fairly strong drug trafficking research paper and philosophy is an extremely broad field of study with various beliefs and theories. To be more specific, I despise taking philosophy courses. The first philosophy class that I ever encountered was a combination of philosophy and sociology. Although it relied heavily on sociological aspects and theories, we spent about one hour during a three hour class period discussing philosophical theories.
In that one hour, I learned that I despise philosophy courses Better Essays words 5. For most western societies Christianity had a strong hold and was not allowed to be tampered with or contradicted. Never the less, people were in search for faith and truth which philosophy could help them discover. Thus began theologians from Christian, Jewish, and Muslim religions attempting to blend and balance faith with philosophy. Better Essays words 2.
Philosophy aims at knowledge that combines a variety of academic fields as well as convictions, prejudices and beliefs. The essay explains these aspects of the study of philosophy in relatively different ways Philosophy papers still revolve around a thesis, still rely on evidence and logic to prove environment least paper research restrictive theses, and environment least paper research restrictive still written to show students' understandings or to gain new understandings just like any other academic paper The major contributors to this movement are primarily from English speaking countries in the early 20th century.
The analytic movement is also often referred to as linguistic analysis because of its focus on language. Linguistic analysis attempts to loosen the constructs on language and resists being locked into extremely precise language, such as the language that is associated with the scientific model of mathematics I was surprised when I saw that all of my scores fell within six points of each other in all five of the philosophies.
After thinking about this, I have determined that I have come to see the benefits of each of the philosophies of education and have drawn pieces from each one in order to shape my own philosophy of education and teaching.
After being introduced to the main educational philosophies, perennialism, essentialism, progressivism and social resconstructionism, I have had the opportunity to decide for myself which ones I believe in and why. I must agree with Thomas Locke that we are born into this world a blank slate.
Living in such an affluent society, education in America is provided and required of all citizens Hegel was very close to his sister, Christiane, she was mentally ill and Hegel was worried about her mental state so he made different forms of psychiatry to help her using dialectic.
Hegel was a philosophy and theology student from, as a student he made friends with other peers such as Friedrich Von Schelling and Friedrich Hegel; two famous German figures in the 19th century Good Essays words 2. Today, we use ethics to describe the normative standard of behavior.
The history of philosophical ethics has been broken up into five rational methods: Virtue, Traditional, Modern, and Post-Modern Ethics. Within these periods, the philosophy of ethics changed along with the changes being made within society.
The first rational method is Virtue Ethics. The major philosophers during this period were materialists such as Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, and Plutarch Strong Essays words 6. Morris, also known as Tom Morris an American philosopher and his book Philosophy for Dummies go to talk about the meaning of life and what it surrounds it.
It first is something that starts out being very large and broad to becoming condensed and more concise. He helps to introduce first is the idea of existential questions that are on the basis of how we exist in our world today. After reading Morris he tends to approach the meaning of life in a way that we examine the nature of meaning Nevertheless, the philosophy of historical materialism that both Engels and Marx espoused became very influential to the thought of the Western world, in addition to inspiring the revolutions that shook Russia and China Powerful Essays words 4.
Emotions, passions, senses, or whatever one may choose to call them, are fundamentally a part of being, and as such should not be seen as deceptions of reality - emotions are part of reality. A more emotional, or intuitive, approach to philosophy is needed discontinue the approach to reason as a great panacea capable of transcendent understanding Better Essays words 5 pages Preview. He responded to the religious pressure he experienced at school as a boy by immersing himself in study and reading of early Latin writings.
At the age of sixteen he began university studies in mathematics, physics, theology, and philosophy. However, these students have taught me 1, different things too and that is every student comes from somewhere and every student wants to become someone and something.
Better Essays words 3. Aristotle performed some of the greatest scientific advances in the fields of biology, psychology zoology and philosophy to name a few. He distillation research paper singlehandedly created a foundation for the study of logic that is still viable to this day. While logic is the science of correct reasoning, it is not strictly limited to debate and creating arguments Develop a philosophical and epistemological thesis about such empirical data that reveals our rationality shortcomings.
What do these studies show? What do they access plan in dissertation about philosophical accounts of knowledge? What can we learn? How should epistemology be developed in light of what empirical science is demonstrating about human reasoning. Bishop and Trout will be relevant here. Bishop and Trout. Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment.
That is, what is virtue epistemology according to her, what arguments does she give in its favor, and what are the liabilities or problems with the position? Reconstruct and explain his argument, critically evaluate it. Develop a critical philosophical thesis of your own. This BIV argument can be refuted using a direct realist account of perception.
Rather, like the defense in a criminal trial, they are merely undermining the reasons given for the conclusion. References: Undergraduate philosophy papers must be grounded in relevant and reputable philosophical literature.
Attributing claims to others, including canonical philosophers or discussions of them in the secondary literature, must be supported by references to appropriate sources.
However, direct quotation should, on balance, be avoided. Instructors are interested in whether or not students understand difficult philosophical concepts and claims in their own terms. For this reason, paraphrase is usually the best way to cite a source. It is important for a student author to get a sense of what the recent philosophical conversation about a specific topic has been.
Otherwise, she has no way of knowing how environment least paper research restrictive contribute to it. There are many ways for a student to explore the philosophical literature relevant to a topic she has chosen. It is advisable to begin with readings assigned for class. Textbooks, most recent philosophical journal articles, and recent secondary literature usually include detailed lists of references, which provide a useful guide to the relevant literature.
Works cited in multiple places are particularly good sources for students to consult. These sources provide references to recent articles written about most philosophical topics.
Students may also want to explore less specialized internet-based resources, like Google Scholar. However, one must be careful with on-line content. Many web-based resources are not subject to appropriate professional review, and are therefore unreliable.
Students must insure that the claims they make are supported by recent, reputable philosophical cpu research paper. As for citation format, philosophers are generally flexible: some journals require Chicago Style formatting, while others require MLA extended essay ib topics. Most instructors will accept any style as long as it is used correctly and consistently.
So students should consult their instructors about which citation format to follow. Non-standard sources like websites and lecture notes should also be cited in a format that instructors approve. However, this rule of thumb is an overly blunt instrument. For example, authors often express their plans for a paper, e.
Students must avoid expressing subjective opinions. The point of a philosophy paper is to defend a thesis by appeal to objective reasons, that is, reasons that any reasonable person should accept. The Present Tense: Another stylistic feature that is typical of philosophical writing is the almost exclusive use of the present tense.
Tense consistency is often a challenge for undergraduate writers: often past, present, and future tenses are used within the same sentence or paragraph. This must be avoided. In philosophy papers, the rule of thumb is: always use the present tense, even when discussing arguments proposed by philosophers in the past. The fact that some argument, for the existence of God for example, was first proposed in the past is irrelevant for philosophical purposes. Arguments are cpu research paper as timeless contributions to the philosophical conversation, and students should treat canonical arguments as though they still constitute persuasive reasons for believing some claim.
This simple rule also insures tense consistency. In the rare circumstance in which some kind of historical context must be provided, e.
But such circumstances are exceptional because philosophy papers focus on the timeless arguments that have been provided in defense of claims that are still controversial, not on the historical details or biographies that led particular philosophers to formulate these arguments. Repeating Words vs.
Using Synonyms: Another rule-of-thumb often promulgated in high school composition classes prescribes the use of synonyms over repetition of the same word. The motivation for this is clear: when students are forced to avoid repeating words, they must search for synonyms and this helps expand their vocabulary. However, by the time a student enrolls in a University-level philosophy course, her vocabulary should be sufficiently developed. Philosophy instructors value clarity and precision far above conspicuous displays of vocabulary.
This is because, as we saw above, the soundness of an argument often depends on the precise meanings of the terms with which it is expressed. And these variations in meaning are often very significant in the context of philosophical arguments.
In some contexts, these words are interchangeable; they constitute synonyms. However, there are many philosophical contexts in which these words are not interchangeable. For example, the question of whether or not our decisions are free, or determined by our genetic endowment and environmental influences is a perennial philosophical puzzle.
For this reason, it is best to repeat precisely the same terms for the same key concepts throughout a philosophy paper. Philosophical creativity and imagination, like their scientific or artistic counterparts, are mysterious. It is difficult to formulate rules for coming up with topics and arguments for philosophy papers.
Different individuals will succeed at this task in different ways. Here, I discuss three broad strategies for conceiving and composing an undergraduate philosophy paper; however, this list is not meant to be exhaustive. Philosophy papers can be characterized as 1 narrow focus papers, 2 broad focus papers, and 3 application distillation research paper.
The narrow focus strategy is perhaps the most straightforward strategy for composing a philosophy paper. The point of such a paper is to focus as much as possible on a specific argument by a specific philosopher and to discuss the strengths and weakness of this specific argument.
One begins by correctly explaining the target argument. Then one raises objections, either by showing that one or more of the premises is false or implausible, or by showing that the premises, even if true, fail to support the conclusion. One then considers how the author of drug trafficking united states research paper might respond to these criticisms, and ends by replying to these responses. In the course of writing such a focused, critical analysis, the student should include a survey of other criticisms that have been raised, and make clear how her criticism is unique.
Such papers can be extremely narrow. For example, they might focus on just one premise, or sub-argument of a larger argument. Another possibility is to look at some historical debate about a particular premise of some canonical argument, and contribute to it. Or one might look at a classic criticism of some premise Aquinas uses in an argument, and offer a novel response on behalf of Aquinas.
Another kind of narrow focus paper concerns philosophical definitions. This has given rise to an important kind of philosophical debate. Philosophical definitions provide necessary and sufficient conditions for something to count as an example of some concept. For example, one classical definition of knowledge states that for a person to know some claim, the person must believe the claim; she must have good reasons for believing it, and the claim must be true. This definition claims that belief, truth and justification are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for knowledge.
However, one of the classic papers of Twentieth Century philosophy raises a counterexample to this definition: an example of a justified drug trafficking research paper belief that, intuitively, should not count as knowledge. This counterexample shows that belief, truth and justification are not sufficient for knowledge, contrary to the classical definition.
This has spawned a cottage industry, involving attempts to modify the definition of knowledge to accommodate the counterexample, followed by new counterexamples to these new definitions. Get help with custom Philosophy term paper writing at Buyassignment. Disclaimer: Buyassignment. Read More.Significantly, the programs written for EDVAC were to be stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer.
EDVAC, however, was not the first stored-program computer; the Manchester Babya small-scale experimental stored-program computer, ran its first program on 21 June  and the Manchester Mark 1 ran its first program during the night of June Early CPUs were custom designs used as part of a larger and sometimes distinctive essay analysis of the whistle by benjamin franklin. The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured environment least paper research restrictive tolerances on the order of nanometers.
Modern microprocessors appear in electronic devices ranging from automobiles  to cellphones,  and sometimes even in toys. While von Neumann is most often credited with the design of the stored-program computer because of his design of EDVAC, and the design became known as the von Neumann architectureothers before him, such as Konrad Zusehad suggested and implemented similar ideas.
Relays and vacuum tubes thermionic tubes were commonly used as switching elements;   a useful computer requires thousands or tens of thousands of switching devices. The overall speed of a system is dependent on the speed of the switches. Tube computers like EDVAC tended to average eight hours between failures, whereas relay computers like the slower, but earlier Harvard Mark I failed very rarely.
Most of these early synchronous CPUs ran at low clock rates compared to modern microelectronic designs. The design complexity of CPUs increased as various technologies facilitated building smaller and more reliable electronic devices.
The first such improvement came with the advent of the transistor. Transistorized CPUs during the s and s no longer had to be built out of bulky, unreliable and fragile switching elements like vacuum tubes and relays. To facilitate this improvement, IBM used the concept of a microprogram often called "microcode"which still sees widespread usage in modern CPUs.
Transistor-based computers had several distinct advantages over their predecessors. Aside from facilitating increased reliability and lower power consumption, transistors also allowed CPUs to operate at much higher speeds because of the short switching time of a transistor in comparison to a tube or relay. During this period, a method of manufacturing many interconnected transistors in a compact space was developed.
The integrated circuit IC allowed a large number of transistors to be manufactured on a single semiconductor -based dieor "chip". At first, only very basic non-specialized digital circuits such as NOR gates were miniaturized into ICs.
To build an entire CPU out of SSI ICs required thousands of individual chips, but still consumed much less space and power than earlier discrete transistor designs.
Lee Boysel published influential articles, including a "manifesto", which described how to build the equivalent of a bit mainframe computer from a relatively small number of large-scale integration circuits LSI. However, some companies continued to build processors out of bipolar transistor-transistor logic TTL chips because bipolar junction transistors were faster than MOS chips up until the s a few companies such as Datapoint continued to build processors out of TTL chips until the early s.
As the microelectronic technology advanced, an increasing number of transistors were placed on ICs, decreasing the number of individual ICs needed for a complete CPU. Mainframe and minicomputer manufacturers of the time launched proprietary IC development programs to upgrade their older computer architecturesand eventually produced instruction set compatible microprocessors that were backward-compatible with their older hardware and software.
Combined with the advent and eventual success of the ubiquitous personal computer distillation research paper, the term CPU is now applied almost exclusively [a] to microprocessors. Several CPUs denoted cores can be combined in a single processing chip.
Previous generations of CPUs were implemented as discrete components and numerous small integrated circuits ICs on one or more circuit boards. Additionally, the ability to construct exceedingly small transistors on an IC has increased the complexity and number of transistors in a single CPU many fold. This widely observed trend is described by Moore's lawwhich had proven to be a fairly accurate predictor of the growth of CPU and other IC complexity until While the complexity, size, construction and general form of CPUs have changed enormously since the basic design and function has not changed much at all.
Almost all common CPUs today can be very accurately described as von Neumann stored-program machines. Extreme miniaturization of electronic gates is causing the effects of phenomena like electromigration and subthreshold leakage to become much more significant.
The fundamental operation of most CPUs, regardless of the physical form they take, is to execute a sequence of stored instructions that is called a program. The instructions to be executed are kept in some kind of computer memory. Nearly all CPUs follow the fetch, decode and execute steps in their operation, which are collectively known as the instruction cycle.
After analytical dissertation execution of an instruction, drug trafficking united states research paper entire process drug trafficking research paper, with the next instruction cycle normally fetching the next-in-sequence instruction because of the incremented value in the program counter.
If a jump instruction was executed, the program counter will be modified to contain the address of the instruction that was jumped to and program execution continues normally.
In more complex CPUs, multiple instructions can be fetched, decoded and executed simultaneously. This section describes what is generally referred to as the " classic RISC pipeline ", which is quite common among the simple CPUs used in many electronic devices often called microcontroller. It largely ignores the important role of CPU cache, and therefore the access stage of the pipeline. Some instructions manipulate the program counter rather than producing result data directly; such instructions are generally called "jumps" and facilitate program behavior like loopsconditional program execution through the use of a conditional jumpand existence of functions.
These flags can be used to influence how a program behaves, since they often indicate the outcome of various operations. For example, in such processors a "compare" instruction evaluates two values and sets or clears bits in the flags register to indicate which one is greater or whether they are equal; one of these flags could then be used by a later jump instruction to determine program flow.
The first step, fetch, involves retrieving an instruction which is represented by a number or sequence of numbers from program memory. The instruction's location address in program memory is determined by a program counter PCwhich stores a number that identifies the address of the distillation research paper instruction to be fetched. After an instruction is fetched, the PC is incremented by the length of the instruction so that it will contain the address of the next instruction in the sequence.
This issue is largely addressed in modern processors by caches and pipeline architectures see below. In the decode step, performed by the circuitry known as the instruction decoderthe instruction is converted into signals that control other parts of the CPU.
Those operands may be specified as a constant value called an immediate valueor as the location of a value that may be a processor register or a memory address, as determined by some addressing mode. In some CPU designs the instruction decoder is implemented as a hardwired, unchangeable circuit.
In others, a microprogram is used to translate instructions into sets of CPU configuration signals that are applied sequentially over multiple clock pulses. In some cases the memory that stores the microprogram is rewritable, making it possible to change the way in which the CPU decodes instructions.
After the fetch and decode steps, the execute step is performed. Depending on the CPU architecture, this may consist of a single action or a sequence of actions. During each action, various parts of the CPU are electrically connected so they can perform all or part of the desired operation and then the action is completed, typically in response to a clock pulse.
Very often the results are written to an internal CPU register for quick access by subsequent instructions. In other cases results may be written to slower, but less expensive and higher capacity main memory. For example, if an addition instruction is to be executed, the arithmetic logic unit ALU inputs are connected to a pair of operand sources numbers to be summedthe ALU is configured to perform an addition operation so that the sum of its operand inputs will appear at its output, and the ALU output is connected to storage e.
When the clock pulse occurs, the sum will be transferred to storage and, if the resulting sum is too large i.
Hardwired into a CPU's circuitry is a set of basic operations it can perform, do resume an instruction set. Categories : Central Philippine University Research universities in the Philippines Research institutes in the Philippines Research institutes established in Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from July Articles with permanently dead external links Pages using infobox organization with unknown parameters Philippines articles missing geocoordinate data All articles needing coordinates.
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Candidate relationship management Abstract: This term paper presents two instructions set architectures, particularly the CISC and the RISC, which have been developed as computer architects aimed for a fast, cost-effective design. Mass production of lower cost microprocessors has increased the share of microprocessor based computer in the drug trafficking research paper.
This new architecture of microprocessor based computers has become a true success after two major changes in computer marketplace. One is elimination of programming at the assembly language level airport security essay eliminated the need for object-code compatibility.
So any architecture could reuse the source code written in higher level languages. The second is the creation of standardized vendor-independent operating systems like UNIX and its clones like Linux which lowered the cost and risk of bringing out a new architecture. The open standard of systems eased the new computer architecture introduction. The above improvements helped evolve computer architecture from general microprocessor based architecture to a new set of architectures called RISC architectures.
RISC stands for Intel remains leader for 10 years and got a lot profit in this extra ordinary time in PC industry. In and Pentium was a household name of Intel Inside marketing campaign.
As due to progressing high technology ,products and system is divided into segment drug trafficking research paper Intel is now having four segments as per usage of technology in common use of Technology.