In Leopold's words: "A thing right when it tends to preserve the integrity [and] stability To employ a strange simile, health, like obscenity, is difficult to define but easy to recognize. We know when we have it, and more acutely when we do not.
Mindful of the difficulty of defining health, here is my attempt: "Health" is an optimal integrated and stable functioning of the component organs and chemistry of the organism. This definition lends itself to analogical extension: mental health is the integrated and stable functioning of the components of personality; "the healthy society" is one in which the institutions, norms and interpersonal relationships are well-integrated and stable; and ecological health is the integrated and stable interaction of the component parts with each other and with the physical environment.
While the concept of the "healthy land" is implicit, and occasionally explicit, throughout A Sand County AlmanacLeopold takes little trouble in either defining this concept or defending its aldo leopold wilderness essay. Because, like most of us including philosophers when they are away from their workLeopold prefers common sense to the sort of radical skepticism that only a philosopher can love.
We all know what health is, and we can all agree that there is no serious need to defend the intuitively compelling notion that health is desirable. Is health good? Only a philosopher would think to ask. But why should the systemic 'health' of the ecosystem be of interest to the human beings?
Because, of course, our personal health is inextricably tied in with the health of the ecosystem. We'd better take care of the ecosystem if we know what's good for us. But that's simply anthropocentrism writ large. And, of course, Leopold wants much more than that: not mere "enlightened self-interest," but affirmation and love.
For, as Joseph Wood Krutch writes, in behalf of Leopold: "We must live for something besides making a living. Skip to content Search for:. What are Ethics? Published Papers. Unpublished Papers. Reviews, Lectures, etc. School idol festival titles for essays Internet Publications. Two longer sections, along with the introduction, have been left out entirely. Here is aldo leopold odyssey essay essence of the intro: "When god-like Aldo leopold essays returned from the wars in Troy, he hanged all on one rope a dozen slave-girls of his household, whom he suspected of misbehavior during his absence.
This hanging involved no question of propriety The ethical structure of that day covered wives, but had not yet been extended to human chattels. During the three thousand years which have since elapsed, ethical criteria have been extended to many fields of conduct, with corresponding shrinkages in those judged by expediency only.
In that line, Leopold displays the common prejudices many people share about the Biblical account of our relationship with the earth. He writes, "In human history, we have learned I hope that the conqueror role is eventually self-defeating. Because it is implicit in such a role that the conqueror knows, ex cathedrajust what makes the community clock tick, and just what and who is valuable, and what and who is worthless, in community life.
It always turns out that he knows neither, and this is why his conquests eventually defeat themselves. In the biotic community, a parallel situation exists.
At the present moment, the assurance with which we regard this assumption is inverse to the degree of our education. His characterization of Abraham our emphasis does indeed reflect many readings of Genesis especially certain Christian onesbut the actual significance of the land of Canaan in the Torah is quite the opposite: Canaan is praised for being a land in which humans have no direct control over the land's fertility, and must depend on rain instead of irrigation, which in turn depends on God's affirmation of the goodness of their way of living.
In the Torah, this is inextricably linked to two things: equity and justice for all residents whether rich or poor, and letting the land rest in Sabbatical and Jubilee years. This point in the text is btw followed by one of Leopold's more interesting historical digressions about Kentucky and the Civil War, the Southwest and India.
See the second half of the section in the full essay, downloadable here. Leopold's conclusion, "A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise," stands in essence, but his emphasis on stability sounds a lot like 'the balance of nature', which he even briefly critiques.
And of course, how shall we measure beauty in any way that is not so thoroughly anthropocentric as to undermine seeing ourselves merely as citizens rather than masters or stewards of the biosphere? Yet if we conjecture a human instinct towards 'biophilia', as Edmund Wilson does, which would ally our sense of beauty with those needs that nurture biodiversity, and if we limit the scope of 'stability' to speciifc localities, in the sense of both time and space, we can arrive at a conception of what is 'right' that still works in relation to current ecological theory.
But after seeing the green fire die, I sensed that neither the wolf nor the mountain agreed with such a view. The wolf, along with her fellow predators, was more than just a fearsome killer. She was a key part of the ecosystem around her. Remove one wolf from the wilderness, and you strike a very small blow to the balance of nature. Remove them all - as we were determined to do a hundred years ago - and you destroy the balance as surely as a wrecking ball destroys a house.
He found that when a population of predators is depleted or eliminated from a wildland, the animals they once hunted, notably deer in many wilderness areas, are allowed to flourish. Those happy, fat deer eat their favorite wildflowers and shrubs to extinction, completely changing the character of the forest floor. These questions are seeds of thought that Leopold planted. This interest of self-preservation is the purpose of conservation. For this reason, such an ethic can ignore or even eliminate these members when they are actually necessary for the health of the biotic community of the land.
This is the ethic of the land. As a member of the land pyramid we consume other members of the land pyramid just as the land will eventually consume us.
A sense of right and wrong aldo leopold essays not need to enter the discussion. When consciousness leaves us, the land will food and health. Example Essays.
Aldo Leopold Ecocentrism. Continue reading this essay Continue reading Page 1 of 3. Next Page. More Essays:. In MegaEssays.Events C. Tragedies IV. Environmental Impact A.
Financial B. Retirement Whenever there is the mention of the great State of Texas, one tends to automatically visualize a sweltering hot, baron wasteland, saturated with 6-foot rattlesnakes, enormous oil wells, and handsome cowboys galloping on horses, with a six shooter attached to their hip. Few people are aware that deep in the heart of Texas, there is a paradise known as the Hill Country, and the mighty Guadalupe River rises from abundant, natural springs to form two hundred and fifty five miles of beautiful, crystal clear, trout jumping, snake winding water.
Through the passage of time, this impressive river has captured and retained cultural settlements that have shaped towns and formed cities all the way to its inevitable fusion of waters in the Gulf of Mexico. Its beauty however, can be deceiving, as this welcoming jewel in the desert with its soothing, tranquil exquisiteness, contributed to one of the most horrific tragedies in the twentieth century for Texas. When visiting this glorious riverlatent with indented limestone rock from centuries of He then received a call from the kidnapper, giving instructions for delivering the money.
As Franks was about to leave the house with the money, his brother-in-law called to inform him that the dead boy in the mortuary was Bobby. Seven days later police arrested Richard Loeb and Nathan Leopoldand soon both confessed to the murder. The two young men Leopold was 18; Loeb, 19 were scions of two extremely wealthy and respected Jewish families and had achieved outstanding academic records. Loeb was the youngest student ever to have graduated from the University of Michigan, and Leopold was a student at the law school of the University of Chicago.
The two had conspired to commit the perfect crime, confident that their intellectual superiority would enable them to outwit police investigators. They derived part of their rationale from the teachings of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche and his doctrine of the "superman," which argued that superior individuals lived "beyond good and evil," the moral constraints that governed ordinary people.
But their crime was far from perfect. They had committed a number of obvious blunders: Leopold had left his glasses at the scene of the crime, and Loeb had tossed the murder weapon, a aldo leopold odyssey essay, out the window of their car in a place where it might be, and was, easily found.
The nature of the murder and the prominence of the families involved The land is much like the human body-if one part is damaged or sick, the effects can be witnessed elsewhere. Like a cancer that attacks the cells, the effect of pollution, overhunting, and over farming can spread far beyond the site of initial damage. Further, Leopold points out the flaws of solving the conservation dilemma.
Browse Essays. Show More. There are people, like me, that have been in the city so long that they cannot remember the last time that they even saw natural lake, or even the sea. One is the danger of supposing that breakfast comes from the grocery, and the other that heat comes from the furnace. When you go to the grocery store, do you think about where the produce comes from?
Do you think about the farmers? The digitization of the Leopold Collection will serve scholars, policy leaders and the general public who look to Aldo Leopold for insight and inspiration on how to deal with complex conservation challenges facing society in the 21st Century. Written authorization from the Aldo Leopold Foundation is required prior to reproducing items in the collection for publication or exhibition.
For higher quality digital or print copies dissertation writing nyc east side contact the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center at digitalcontent library. Search UWDC. What specific things should we do differently if our actions are to be ethically just.
Though Leopold was not formally trained in philosophy, he felt it was critical to address the ethical aspects of conservation and the human relationship aldo leopold wilderness essay land-for himself, his fellow ecologists and conservationists, and for the general public.
If we grant the premise that an ecological conscience is possible and needed, then its first tenet must be this: economic provocation is no longer a satisfactory excuse for unsocial land-use or, to use somewhat stronger words, for ecological atrocities. It is the day that man feels one with the environment. Aldo Leopold January 11, - April 21, was an American author, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist.
In retrospect, it seems inevitable that economics would give Leopold much to ponder. His thinking on economics and the human-land relationship would mature over his career and would eventually lead him to articulate his land ethic in A Sand County Almanac. Ely played a key role in its founding by authoring its original statement of purpose and serving as its first secretary. If the owner is an impersonal government, nobody is benefitted except the government employee.
A Land ethic is a philosophy that seeks to guide the actions when humans use or make changes to the land. How much more complex and unknowable, then, are the ultimate consequences of our modern way of life on the land.
Looking at where we are now, 64 years later, that potential has increased exponentially. The result was the creation of an American system of land-grant universities. No important change in ethics was ever accomplished without an internal change in our intellectual emphasis, loyalties, affections, and convictions.
Leopold argued that in order to preserve both human society and the land, this relationship would need to be expanded beyond the economic realm to include ecology, ethics, and aesthetics.